Roman numerals are expressed by letters of the alphabet:

I=1

V=5

X=10

L=50

C=100

D=500

M=1000

There are four basic principles for reading and writing Roman numerals:

1. A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A letter can only be repeated three times.

2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount.

VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6)

LXX = 70 (50 + 10 + 10 = 70)

MCC = 1200 (1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200)

3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.

IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4)

XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)

CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)

Several rules apply for subtracting amounts from Roman numerals:

a. Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L)

For 95, do NOT write VC (100 – 5).

DO write XCV (XC + V or 90 + 5)

b. Only subtract one number from another.

For 13, do NOT write IIXV (15 – 1 - 1).

DO write XIII (X + I + I + I or 10 + 3)

c. Do not subtract a number from one that is more than 10 times greater (that is, you can subtract 1 from 10 [IX] but not 1 from 20—there is no such number as IXX.)

For 99, do NOT write IC (C – I or 100 - 1).

DO write XCIX (XC + IX or 90 + 9)

4. A bar placed on top of a letter or string of letters increases the numeral's value by 1,000 times.

XV = 15, (X-bar)(V-bar)= 15,000

One I Eleven XI Thirty XXX

Two II Twelve XII Forty XL

Three III Thirteen XIII Fifty L

Four IV Fourteen XIV Sixty LX

Five V Fifteen XV Seventy LXX

Six VI Sixteen XVI Eighty LXXX

Seven VII Seventeen XVII Ninety XC

Eight VIII Eighteen XVIII One hundred C

Nine IX Nineteen XIX Five hundred D

Ten X Twenty XX One thousand M

I=1

V=5

X=10

L=50

C=100

D=500

M=1000

There are four basic principles for reading and writing Roman numerals:

1. A letter repeats its value that many times (XXX = 30, CC = 200, etc.). A letter can only be repeated three times.

2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value, add that amount.

VI = 6 (5 + 1 = 6)

LXX = 70 (50 + 10 + 10 = 70)

MCC = 1200 (1000 + 100 + 100 = 1200)

3. If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.

IV = 4 (5 – 1 = 4)

XC = 90 (100 – 10 = 90)

CM = 900 (1000 – 100 = 900)

Several rules apply for subtracting amounts from Roman numerals:

a. Only subtract powers of ten (I, X, or C, but not V or L)

For 95, do NOT write VC (100 – 5).

DO write XCV (XC + V or 90 + 5)

b. Only subtract one number from another.

For 13, do NOT write IIXV (15 – 1 - 1).

DO write XIII (X + I + I + I or 10 + 3)

c. Do not subtract a number from one that is more than 10 times greater (that is, you can subtract 1 from 10 [IX] but not 1 from 20—there is no such number as IXX.)

For 99, do NOT write IC (C – I or 100 - 1).

DO write XCIX (XC + IX or 90 + 9)

4. A bar placed on top of a letter or string of letters increases the numeral's value by 1,000 times.

XV = 15, (X-bar)(V-bar)= 15,000

One I Eleven XI Thirty XXX

Two II Twelve XII Forty XL

Three III Thirteen XIII Fifty L

Four IV Fourteen XIV Sixty LX

Five V Fifteen XV Seventy LXX

Six VI Sixteen XVI Eighty LXXX

Seven VII Seventeen XVII Ninety XC

Eight VIII Eighteen XVIII One hundred C

Nine IX Nineteen XIX Five hundred D

Ten X Twenty XX One thousand M